(五)关系代词 – 赖世雄语法知识点

  1. 定义
    A. 关系代词具有连词的作用,连接定语从句
    a. He is a man who(关系代词) was won the champion of that match(定语从句,修饰和限定主谓的作用句子叫定语从句)
  2. 用法
    A. 知识点整理
    a. 关系代词whom前面要有先行词(人、物),如a man
    b. 关系代词所引导的定语从句,需要在句子表示主语、宾语或表语
    c. 否则,必须前面必须要加介词,如for/with/in
    B. 实例讲解
    a. 例子A:He is a man whom I enjoy working (X)
    1. 这个地方,错在enjoy working是个enjoy + 动名词,working后无法接宾语,也不表示主语和表语,所以whom引导的定语从句不符合上述语法规则
    2. 要修改的话,需要whom前面加上with/for
    b. 例子B:He is a man with whom I enjoy working
    1. 加上with这个语句就通顺了
    2. 除了上述修改例子,还可以改成
    A. He is a man whom I enjoy working with
    B. 像上面这个with移到句尾的情况,其关系代词whom可以省略,如
    C. He is a man I enjoy working with
  3. Which的概念
    A. which可以表示前面整个句子的概念
    B. which也可以表示前面句子部分内容的概念
    非限制性定语从句和限定性定语从句
    A. 非限制性定语从句,在前面需要加逗号 “,”
    a. 一般这种情况,是因为先行词本身具有特殊性和唯一性
    1. 如John、Jerry的人名,只有一个
    2. 如My Father、My Mother的角色,也只有一个
    3. 如大江大河,风景,城市,也只有一个
    4. 如大家都知道的地点或者物体,如熟悉的the train station
    b. 例子:we knew the train sitation, which was built in 2005
    1. 因为这个train station都知道是哪一个,本身足够独特唯一了,不必用定语从句来再强调它的独特性
    B. 限制性定语从句,在前面不需要加逗号
    a. 一般这种情况,是因为先行词不够“特殊”、“唯一”,需要追加定语从句来限定
    1. 例子:I knew the teacher whom I met yesterday. (OKAY)
    A. 因为teacher很广泛,如果你加逗号而不是用定语从句拼上去,就不符合语法
    a. 也就是先行词足够特殊唯一了,你才可以不拼上定语从句
    b. 你需要主语和定语连在一起,做一个限定
  4. 关系代词的省略
    A. 如果关系代词whom前面的with移到句尾,可以省略
    a. The coworker whom I enjoy working with
    1. The coworker I enjoy working with
    B. 如果关系代词whom引导的定语从句,是代表宾语,则也可以省略
    a. The girl whom I met yesterday
    1. The girl I met yesterday
    关系代词That的用法
    A. that前面不能用逗号隔开,主语和定语从句必须拼在一起!
    a. The girl that I met yesterday
    B. that前面不可以有介词,如果有请加in fact进行补充
    a. Sorry for the fact that I haven’t read them yet.
    C. 必须用that的几种情况
    a. 最高级、All、序数词、the very强调、the only
    1. The highest man that I knew before
    2. The first winner that is champion.
    3. All of the studentds that graduated last year.
    4. I know the very man that I met yesterday
    b. 在定语从句里想再表示一下定语从句的代表,可用that
    1. The man which I met that yesterday
    c. 定语从句的that作用如果是做表语则也必须用that,例如后面有be动词的
    1. He is not the man that he once was
    d. 定语从句想指代两个性质不同但共用一个关系代词的
    1. The dog and owner that have a good relationship.
    限制性定语从句,转换为分词短语
    A. 用法1
    a. 例子:The girl who danced here is my sister
    1. 删除关系代词who
    A. The girl danced here is my sister
    2. 把关系代词后的动词,改为现在分词
    A. The girl dancing here is my sister
    3. 如果关系代词后的动词是Be动词,则改为Being
    A. The car which is parked there. (Before)
    B. The car being parked there. (After)
    C. The car parked there (being可以进一步省略)
  5. 定语从句的关系代词,不会因为插入语而受影响,例如
    A. 主语+表认知的动词
    a. I think
    b. I feel
    c. I consider
    B. 特殊情况
    a. 表认知的动词后面,是be动词,如:is、are、were等
    1. 关系代词需要用who主语
    A. The teacher who I think is cool
    b. 表认知的动词后面,是to be computed的类型的话
    1. 关系代词需要用whom宾语
    A. The teacher whom I think to be nice

关系代词所有格whose

  1. 关于whose的替代方案
    A. 用法
    a. whose + n.
    b. the + n + of which
    c. of which + the + n.
    B. 例子
    a. This is a fancy car, whose color I like very much.
    b. This is a fancy car, the color of which I like very much.
    c. This is a fancy car, of which the color I like very much.

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