(七)不定式短语 – 赖世雄语法知识点

不定式短语定义

  1. 名词
    A. To go for a walk is my planning tonight
  2. 形容词
    A. I have something to do
    a. to do用来修饰something
  3. 副词
    A. I came to see her
    a. to see her用来修饰came

不定式短语用法

  1. 主语
    A. To see is to believe.
  2. 宾语
    A. 不可以作为“不完全及物动词”的宾语,要用形式宾语it来代替
    a. I found it difficult to discover
    1. to discover是不定式名词
    2. found 是不完全及物动词
    A. 不完全及物动词就是,我变成他,他被我变成,这个句子不完整,要加difficult来修饰found这个动词
  3. be动词后作表语
    A. my plan is to see her
  4. 形容词
    A. I have no work to do
    a. to do修饰work,作为形容词
    B. 不定式作为形容词时,可以等于关系代词作主语的定语从句
    a. I have no work to be done
    1. I have no work which should be done
    C. 不定式作为形容词时,可以等于关系代词作宾语的定语从句
    a. I have no work to be done
    1. I have no work which I can do
    D. 如果不定式短语是不及物动词,则需要加对应的介词,例如
    a. He is a good man to work with
  5. 疑问词+不定式=名词短语
    A. how to do it
    B. when to do it
    C. whose to buy it
    D. whom to work with
    E. what to do the task
  6. that从句转换为不定式
    A. 单数的转换
    a. Example-1
    1. It seems that he works hard.
    2. He seems to work hard.
    b. Example-2
    1. It was said that he loved music very much.
    2. He was said to love music very much.
    B. 复数的转换
    a. Example-1
    1. It appears that they are nice.
    2. They appear to be nice.
    b. Example-2
    1. It is said they love music very much.
    2. They are said to love music very much.
    C. 时态改变(如已经完成、曾经、过去),动词前面加have
    a. Example-1
    1. It seems that he worked hard.
    2. He seems to have worked hard.
    b. Example-2
    1. It is said that he was a thug in the past
    2. He is said to have been a thug in the past
    D. 以上转换后的结果,to be nice请看成一个不定式短语,分别做表语和主语补语等作用
    E. 如果seems和appear后面有to be,可以省略,例如
    a. Example-1
    1. It seems to be nice
    2. It seems nice
    b. Example-2
    1. It appears to be dangerous
    2. It appears dangerous
    F. prove 的两个用法
    a. 及物动词,表示证明,后面接着宾语
    1. The investigation proved his guilt.
    b. 不完全不及物动词,表示“显示”,“竟然是”,后面接表语”to be + n/adj”
    1. What he said proved to be true
    2. prove 后面的 to be 也可以省略
  7. 意愿动词与虚拟语气的关系
    A. would have + 过去分词
    a. 表示与过去事实不符的相关的虚拟语气
    b. 替换方案,使用have+过去分词的方式
    1. expected to have + p.p.
    2. wanted to + have + p.p.
    3. intended to + have + p.p.
    4. hoped to + have + p.p.
    c. 替换方案2,使用to+原形动词的方式
    1. expected to work
    2. wanted to work
    d. 替换方案3,使用was/were to have + p.p. 以及 should have + p.p.
    1. 但这个是表示本应该…..但却未…..,表示与过去事实不符的语气
    2. I was to have done it, but I didn’t have time then.
    3. I should have done it, but I didn’t have time then.
    A. 关于have time then的then,我也不知道为啥加,根据豆瓣这个帖子https://www.douban.com/group/topic/88265286/,可以参考具体作用
    a. 表示惊讶、质疑
    b. 表示急躁情绪,配合咆哮语气
    c. 表示现在,相当于“now”
    d. 表达相反意见
    e. 表达”那么“,”就“,”因此“
    f. 作为定义,adj,表示”当时的“
  8. 不定式的省略
    A. you may go if you want to go
    B. 这里的to go的go,在前面已经有了,为了避免重复,可以省略
    C. you may go if you want to
    不定式可以作为感叹句
    A. To think that such a young student is pretty smart!
    知觉动词和原型不定式的关系
    A. I saw him enter the room
    B. He was seen to enter the house by me
    C. I never heard him speak English
    D. He was never heard to speak English by me
    let、make、bid、have等使役动词之后,需要用原型不定式作宾语补语
    A. Allow me to try it.
    B. Tell him to come.
    C. I got him to wash the car.
  9. help的几种用法
    A. help + 宾语 + to + 原形动词
    a. He helped me to do the work.
    B. help + 宾语 + with + 名词
    a. He helped me with the work
    C. help + to + 原形动词
    a. please help to reply this mail
    D. help with + 名词
    a. He helped with the work

原型不定式的特殊结构

  1. do nothing but + 原型不定式
    A. He did nothing but eat all day
  2. choose/expect/want/desire nothing but to + 原形动词
    A. He wanted nothing but to sleep
    B. He choose nothing but to walk.
  3. be interested in nothing but + 动名词/名词
    A. I’m interested in nothing but walking
  4. enjoy nothing but + 动名词/名词
    A. I enjoy nothing but walking
  5. cannot but + 原型不定式
    A. cannot help + 动名词
    a. 此处的help等于stop或者resist,抗拒的意思
    B. cannot help but + 原型不定式
    a. 这里的表示”不得不/忍不住“
    b. When I heard the story, I couldn’t but laugh.

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